The average annual temperature hovers around twenty seven degrees celsius and annual precipitation is in the range of one thousand millimetres. Elevation of the park ranges from sea level to about one hundred and fifty feet at its highest point.
A unique geographical feature of the Wilpattu National Park is the existence of what are known as ‘Villu’ or natural shallow indentations in the soil that allows rainwater to collect and be used by the wildlife during the dry season.
The majority of the villu’s are freshwater while saltwater and brackish water villu’s also exist.
The villu’s range from small ponds to large reservoirs that form extensive wetlands. Certain areas of the park have a copper red loamy soil and approximately seventy five percent of the park is thickly forested. The forested areas of the park contain tropical hardwood trees including Satin, Ebony, Palu (Manilkara hexandra), Weera (Drypetes Sepiaria) among others.
Inter-monsoon rains hit the park each year in March and April and a period of drought sets in from May through early September.
The major rainy season (Northern monsoon) sets in from September through December.
- The geographical location of Wilpattu National Park is striking with the main block of land bordering the north western coast and stretching approximately thirty six kilometres.
- The main zone of the park is sandwiched between the Modaragam Aru river and the Kala Oya river.
- The smaller zone, to the north east of the main zone, lacks a coastal border.